APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY
AIP Foundation will employ the model proven successful in Vietnam by creating private-public partnerships of local and international road safety stakeholders, including private corporations, NGOs, local governments, and public sector entities. In Vietnam, this effective multi-sector approach lead to the 2007 passage of Resolution 32, the mandatory adult helmet law that resulted in a 12 percent reduction in road fatalities, a 24 percent reduction in serious injuries and savings of million over the past two years, according to the National Traffic Safety Committee. Through its membership with the Global Helmet Vaccine Initiative, AIP Foundation will address the challenge of road safety from multiple angles, employing grassroots and nation-wide approaches. Mass media campaigns will increase public awareness of road traffic safety nationally, while school-based helmet distribution and education programs will inform the next generation of road users. AIP Foundation and its partners will also engage local government to advocate for helmet use, helmet standards, and enforcement. Capacity building and technical assistance will strengthen local partners and ensure that traffic safety interventions remain sustainable in each target country, eventually becoming independent from AIP Foundation. As a part of the Global Helmet Vaccine Initiative, AIP Foundation will collaborate with third-party institutions, including the CDC, to establish baseline data on traffic safety attitudes and behaviors, and monitoring and evaluation of subsequent interventions. They will survey the public and the target schools on their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding road safety. Based on these assessments, AIP Foundation and its partners will identify the next steps for a sustained presence in each target country.
IMPLEMENTATION, TIMELINE, AND DELIVERABLES
Over three years, AIP Foundation will scale up its current programming in Vietnam, and establish programs in Cambodia, Uganda, and the Indian province of Karnataka. Subject to funding, primary school-based education initiatives will expand to 45 schools in Vietnam, 18 schools in Cambodia, 8 schools in Uganda, and 23 schools in Karnataka. These programs are projected to reach 2,475 teachers and 81,000 students in Vietnam; 850 teachers and 39,200 students in Cambodia; 80 teachers and 4,000 students in Uganda; and 140 teachers and 4,250 students in Karnataka. Furthermore, 140,000 parents in Vietnam; 70,000 parents in Cambodia, 7,000 parents in Uganda; and 7,500 parents in Karnataka will receive educational materials, encouraging the entire family to be safer road users. Public awareness education will expose countless individuals to the importance of road safety and encourage more responsible road use. School-based program deliverables include traffic safety education materials, training workshops on interactive teaching methods, helmet donations, helmet use training, and a pre- and post-program assessment of target schools.
In Uganda and Karnataka, the first year will be devoted to building stakeholder coalitions, securing financial and political support for program implementation, and conducting baseline research on helmet use and attitudes. Initially, AIP Foundation and its partners will focus on gathering baseline data and providing technical assistance, in areas such as helmet standards and quality testing labs. In Vietnam and Cambodia, AIP Foundation has taken many of these steps and will implement public awareness and school-based education programming over the three years. Based on the road safety challenges of each target country, AIP Foundation and its partners in the Global Helmet Vaccine Initiative will develop a country-specific implementation strategy for the next three years.
Road traffic injuries and deaths are at epidemic levels worldwide, killing more people than malaria or tuberculosis each year. Annually, 1.3 million people perish on the world's roads (WHO 2002). Over 90 percent of these fatalities occur in developing countries (WHO 2009). Without intervention, the WHO predicts that road deaths will be the leading cause of health losses for children 5-14 years of age by 2015, as measured by Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). The burden to the healthcare system is great: road traffic crash victims occupy 40-60 percent of hospital beds. In addition, road traffic crashes cost developing economies anywhere from 2 -3 percent of their GDP, sometimes equaling or surpassing the total amount received in development aid. The psychological and emotional cost to families is difficult to quantify but impossible to ignore. Studies from Cambodia and India show that road traffic crashes negatively impact progress towards all eight Millennium Development Goals, and that victims' families are often pushed into poverty after the loss or injury of the primary income generator. After a road traffic crash, the primary school drop-out rate of the affected Cambodian households was eight times the provincial average. Road traffic crashes doubled infant mortality rates and tripled rates of disease in the victims' households. In Cambodia, everyday 5 people perish and 19 people suffer severe injuries that remove them from the workforce and burden their families because of road traffic crashes.
Motorcycles brought mobility to the masses in the developing world, but also put a generation of riders at considerable risk. In 2009, motorcycle riders, many of whom were not wearing helmets, comprised 71 percent of road traffic fatalities in Cambodia. Similarly in Uganda, 52 percent of road fatalities are among vulnerable road users, such as motorcycle riders, cyclists, and pedestrians. Traumatic brain injuries, which could be prevented by proper helmet use, cause over half of motorcycle accident fatalities according to the Injury Control Centre of Uganda. India leads the world in traffic fatalities and Karnataka provinces faced over 40,000 road traffic accidents in 2008, resulting in more than 23 road fatalities a day. Among road fatalities, 39 percent are two-wheeled vehicle users. Finally, Vietnam continues to face challenges in road safety despite many recent achievements. While government resolutions mandate all from the age of six must wear helmets when riding a motorcycle, many people still do not comply and 62 percent of motorcycle fatalities are due to poor-quality helmets according to the Ministry of Health. Thus, public awareness campaigns, school-based programs, and advocacy for better helmet standards and enforcement will be essential in the continuing battle against the epidemic of road traffic fatalities and injuries.