APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY
The Mara Naboisho Community Conservancy (MNCC) will be a unique local development and conservation model where local Maasai landowners are offered to become primary investors in ecosystem management by allowing their land to be leased by a local management company registered in Kenya. The company will be owned and operated by representatives of the local landowners and the tourism investors and local landowners, giving both partners equal stakes in the wealth creation process of sustainable management of the conservancy's natural resources (wildlife, water, forest, biodiversity etc). Besides providing inflation-secured rent for the local landowners, the management company will be responsible for managing and conserving the wildlife resources in such a way that it increases the land and wildlife value over time. The company will also be responsible for developing the proper infrastructure inside the conservancy - such as primary and secondary road networks and will be in charge of all security issues, managing potential human-wildlife conflict, as well as enforcing conservancy regulations and code of conduct. The management company will guarantee the landowner's income over a 15-year period by enforcing rent collection from the tourism investors. The rent alone will earn the local community a minimum over USD 17 million during the first 15-year period, with an average income per landowner of about USD 2,000 annually. However, the development of alternative livelihoods, which will be initiated by the management company, is likely to increase the average income as well as reaching many more community members besides the local landowners. The agreement through the management company will also guarantee to cover the management costs of over USD 3 million and funds for community development projects. The income will be equitably and individually distributed in relation to the size of land put under conservation. A For-Profit company, owned by the local community, will represent the landowners at the management level. This win-win-win situation is manifested by the development of excellent tourism products, local income generation and local jobs as well as long-term conservation value.
IMPLEMENTATION, TIMELINE, AND DELIVERABLES
MNCC will be established through the legal signing of +500 landowner's lease agreements covering over 50,000 acres of prime wildlife land. Full implementation of the conservancy is expected by 2013 and all targets are expected to be reached by 2015. All tourism investments will go through a scheduled development phase expected to be finalized in stages within the coming 1-3 years. By 2012, the private sector is expected to take full responsibility for the finance of the conservancy. At the onset, 85% of rent and operational costs will be covered by the investors with a 'bridging' contribution of 15% by Basecamp Foundation. The management plan of Naboisho will be fully implemented by 31/12/2011. A Master Plan, which directs the development of tourism, management and community infrastructure is expected to be developed by the end of 2011, and fully implemented and financed by 2013. The indicated targets of the commitment are being pursued and measured as the commitment is being developed in 2011 and onward through the establishment of annual objectives and a review process starting in December 2011.
With Africa's human population set to double to 2 billion by 2050, at the same time as the continent's bio-capacity is rapidly falling, new thinking is needed to preserve the remaining biodiversity as well as to address the problem of increasing poverty. Are the issues of reduced bio-capacity, diminishing biodiversity and poverty interlinked? Can they be addressed at the same time? Africa's wildlife tourism is a fast growing industry and has typically developed in and around protected areas (PA's) in Eastern and Southern Africa. In the surrounding areas of PA's, progressively poorer communities with high human population growth are found. Kenya's Masai Mara region is now heavily overgrazed and tourism contributes to rapid erosion of local culture, as it has grown from a few beds to over 5000 over the last 40 years. The wildlife tourism of East Africa is generally best characterized as an 'all inclusive' tourism product, which leave marginal resources behind and provide few local benefits in the form of employment or payments for ecosystem services (PES). According to a New Internationalist study, for every US dollar spent on a conventional safari to Kenya's Masai Mara, the local communities benefited less than 1% from the total value chain of tourism revenue. Increased pressure on land, the exclusion from the tourism industry, rapid population growth and the adverse effects of climate change has lead to a marked increase in poverty. Today nearly 50% of the Masai Mara communities live under the extreme poverty line and a steadily growing stream of young Maasai move into suburban slums due to lack of alternative livelihoods within the local communities. This has moved countries like Kenya into an unsustainable resource situation where the Nation's natural resource wealth management is becoming a number one priority. However, few practical solutions and replicable models exist, which address conservation of biodiversity, equitable sharing of resources and local economic development. Basecamp Foundation has, in collaboration with the Maasai community, the tourism industry and development organizations, will build a replicable and scalable model for local income generation and job creation through wildlife conservation and tourism investments. Mara Naboisho Community Conservancy (the model) will be launched in 2011 as an answer to the disenfranchisement of local communities in tourism development, unsustainable use of natural resources and, as a result, increased poverty.
Naboisho Community Conservancy seeks to raise USD 3,000.000 over the coming two years (2014-2015) to meet potential security threats to this important conservation and development model based on wildlife protection and responsible tourism business on private community owned land. The aim is to achieve this through a combination of social investments and grants. The purpose of the financial support is to speed up the security infrastructure inside the conservation area as well as to develop a land acquisition fund land lease endowment fund.
The biggest threats to the success of the community conservancy model (here represented by Naboisho Conservancy) are illegal killing of wildlife (poaching), selling of land by local landowners under financial pressure and political instability and risk of terror in Kenya. These threats needs to be addressed immediately and the tourism investors are, together with the local Maasai landowners seeking financial partners to enable these measures to be initiated in 2014.
Today, Masai Mara boosts with 16 community owned conservation areas covering nearly 200,000 acres of prime wildlife land as part of the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem. Over 5000 local land benefit monthly from this conservation wave that has taken place in less than 8 years. The conservancy model has proven to be successful in delivering new jobs, conservation value and tangible development results in a short time-span. However, the model is still fragile given the recent political and security situation in Kenya.